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QCoro::Generator

ModuleCoro
Include
#include <QCoroGenerator>
CMake
target_link_libraries(myapp QCoro::Coro)
QMake
QT += QCoroCoro
template<typename T> class QCoro::Generator

Generator is a coroutine that that yields a single value and then suspends itself, until resumed again. Then it yields another value and suspends again. Generator can be inifinite (the coroutine will never finish and will produce new values for ever until destroyed from the outside) or finite (after generating some amount of values the coroutine finishes).

The QCoro::Generator<T> is a template class providing interface for the generator consumer. There is no standard API for generators specified in the C++ standard (as of C++20). The design chosen by QCoro copies the design of cppcoro library, which is for the Generator<T> class to provide begin() and end() methods to obtain iterator- like objects, allowing the generators to be used like containers and providing an interface that is familiar to every C++ programmer.

// Simple generator that produces `count` values from 0 to `(count-1)`.
QCoro::Generator<int> iota(int count) {
    for (int i = 0; i < count; ++i) {
        // Yields a value and suspends the generator.
        co_yield count;
    }
}

void counter() {
    // Creates a new initially suspended generator coroutine
    auto generator = iota(10);
    // Resumes the coroutine, obtains first value and returns
    // an iterator representing the first value.
    auto it = generator.begin();
    // Obtains a past-the-end iterator.
    const auto end = generator.end();

    // Loops until the generator doesn't finish.
    while (it != end) {
        // Resumes the generator until it co_yields another value.
        ++it;
        // Reads the current value from the iterator.
        std::cout << *it << std::endl;
    }

    // The code above can be written more consisely using ranged based for-loop
    for (const auto value : iota(10)) {
        std::count << value << std::endl;
    }
}

Infinite generators

A generator may be inifinite, that is it may never finish and keep producing values whenever queried. A simple naive example might be a generator producing random value whenever resumed.

See the next chapter on generator lifetime regarding how to destroy an infinite generator.

QCoro::Generator<quint32> randomNumberGenerator() {
    auto *generator = QRandomGenerator::system();
    while (true) {
        // Generates a single random value and suspends.
        co_yield generator->generate();
    }
}

void randomInitialize(QVector<quint32> &vector) {
    // Constructs the generator
    auto rng = randomNumberGenerator();
    // Gets the first tandom value
    auto rngIt = rng.begin();
    // Loops over all values of the vector
    for (auto &val : vector) {
        // Stores the current random value and generates a next one
        val = *(rngIt++);
    }
} // Destroyes the generator coroutine.

Generator lifetime

The lifetime of the generator coroutine is tight to the lifetime of the associated QCoro::Generator<T> object. The generator coroutine is destroyed when the associated QCoro::Generator<T> object is destroyed, that includes the stack of the coroutine and everything allocated on the stack.

It doesn't matter whether the coroutine has already finished or whether it is suspended after yielding a value. When the QCoro::Generator<T> object is destroyed, the stack of the coroutine and all associated state will be destroyed using the regular rules of stack destruction.

Therefore, it is stafe to allocate values on generator coroutine stack. However, dynamically allocated memory will not be free'd automatically. Therefore if you need to dynamically allocate memory on heap inside the generator coroutine, you must make sure to either free it before the generator coroutine is suspended, or that it is destroyed when the stack is destroyed, e.g. by using it in std::unique_ptr or QScopeGuard.

Memory usage

Keep in mind, that that generator coroutine will keep occupying memory even when not used until it finishes or until the associated QCoro::Generator<T> is destroyed.